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Sample Research Proposal: Education Topics for Nursing Students – A Comprehensive Guide

1. Introduction

The introduction sets the stage for your entire proposal. It should capture the reader’s attention and clearly explain the importance of your research. In this section, you’ll want to:

  • Provide a broad overview of the topic
  • Narrow down to your specific area of interest
  • Explain why this research is necessary
  • Briefly mention the potential impact of your study
  • State your research objectives

Example: “In the rapidly evolving field of healthcare, nursing education plays a crucial role in shaping competent, compassionate, and critical-thinking professionals. As patient care becomes increasingly complex and technology-driven, it’s essential that nursing education adapts to meet these changing demands. This research proposal focuses on an innovative approach to nursing education: simulation-based learning.

Simulation-based learning involves creating realistic scenarios that mimic real-world healthcare situations. These simulations allow nursing students to practice their skills in a safe, controlled environment before applying them in actual clinical settings. While simulation has gained popularity in recent years, its specific impact on critical thinking skills remains understudied.

Critical thinking is a vital skill for nurses, who must often make quick decisions in high-pressure situations. The ability to analyze information, consider multiple perspectives, and arrive at sound conclusions can literally be a matter of life and death in nursing practice. Therefore, understanding how educational methods like simulation-based learning affect the development of these crucial skills is of utmost importance.

This research aims to investigate the effectiveness of simulation-based learning in improving nursing students’ critical thinking skills compared to traditional classroom learning. By doing so, we hope to contribute valuable insights that could shape the future of nursing education, ultimately leading to better-prepared nurses and improved patient outcomes.

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To measure the impact of simulation-based learning on critical thinking skills in nursing students
  2. To compare the effectiveness of simulation-based learning with traditional classroom methods
  3. To explore how improved critical thinking skills translate to clinical performance
  4. To provide evidence-based recommendations for integrating simulation into nursing curricula”

2. Research Topic Selection

Explaining how and why you chose your research topic demonstrates the thought process behind your proposal. This section should:

  • Discuss the relevance of your topic to current nursing practice
  • Explain how you identified gaps in existing research
  • Describe any personal experiences or observations that influenced your choice
  • Connect your topic to broader trends in healthcare and education

Example: “The selection of simulation-based learning as a research topic was motivated by several factors:

  1. Technological Advancements in Healthcare: The healthcare industry is increasingly relying on advanced technology for patient care. From electronic health records to complex medical devices, nurses must be comfortable with technology. Simulation-based learning can help prepare students for this tech-savvy environment.
  2. Patient Safety Concerns: There’s a growing emphasis on patient safety in healthcare. Simulation allows students to practice procedures and decision-making without risking patient harm. This aligns with the healthcare principle of “first, do no harm.”
  3. Limited Clinical Placement Opportunities: Many nursing programs struggle to find enough clinical placements for their students. Simulation can provide additional “clinical” experiences when real-world opportunities are limited.
  4. Gap in Current Research: While reviewing literature on nursing education, I noticed that most studies on simulation focus on skill acquisition or student satisfaction. There’s limited research specifically examining its impact on critical thinking development.
  5. Personal Observations: As a nursing educator, I’ve observed that students often struggle to apply classroom knowledge in clinical settings. They might excel in exams but hesitate when faced with real-world scenarios. This sparked my interest in exploring methods to bridge this theory-practice gap.
  6. Global Health Challenges: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for nurses who can think critically and adapt quickly to new situations. This global event reinforced the importance of developing these skills in nursing students.
  7. Alignment with Educational Trends: There’s a broader trend in education towards active, experiential learning. Simulation-based learning fits well with this pedagogical shift.

By focusing on the impact of simulation-based learning on critical thinking skills, this research addresses a crucial aspect of nursing education while filling a gap in the current body of knowledge.”

3. Literature Review

The literature review is a critical component of your research proposal. It demonstrates your familiarity with existing research and helps justify the need for your study. In this section:

  • Summarize key findings from relevant studies
  • Identify trends, patterns, or contradictions in the literature
  • Discuss methodologies used in previous research
  • Highlight gaps or limitations in current knowledge
  • Explain how your research will contribute to the field

Example: “A comprehensive review of the literature reveals several key themes and gaps related to simulation-based learning in nursing education:

  1. Effectiveness of Simulation in Skill Acquisition: Numerous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of simulation on clinical skill development. For instance, a meta-analysis by Chen et al. (2021) found that nursing students who participated in simulation training showed significantly improved psychomotor skills compared to those who received only traditional instruction. However, these studies primarily focus on technical skills rather than cognitive processes.
  2. Student Satisfaction and Confidence: Research consistently shows high levels of student satisfaction with simulation-based learning. A large-scale survey by Thompson (2022) of 1,000 nursing students across 10 universities found that 87% felt more confident in their abilities after participating in simulations. While confidence is important, it doesn’t necessarily correlate with competence or critical thinking ability.
  3. Transfer of Skills to Clinical Practice: Some studies have attempted to measure how well skills learned in simulation transfer to real clinical settings. A longitudinal study by Patel and Singh (2023) followed 150 nursing graduates for their first year of practice and found that those who had extensive simulation experience during their education reported feeling more prepared for clinical work. However, this study relied on self-reported data rather than objective measures of performance.
  4. Critical Thinking in Nursing Education: Critical thinking has been widely recognized as a crucial skill for nurses. A systematic review by Lopez et al. (2022) identified various teaching strategies aimed at improving critical thinking, including problem-based learning, concept mapping, and reflective journaling. Simulation was mentioned as a promising method, but the review noted a lack of robust studies specifically examining its impact on critical thinking.
  5. Assessment of Critical Thinking: Measuring critical thinking remains a challenge in educational research. While tools like the California Critical Thinking Skills Test have been used in nursing studies, there’s debate about their relevance to clinical decision-making. Martinez (2023) proposed a new assessment tool specifically for evaluating critical thinking in nursing scenarios, but it has yet to be widely validated.
  6. Long-term Impact of Educational Interventions: Most studies on simulation-based learning focus on immediate or short-term outcomes. There’s a notable lack of research examining the long-term impact of these educational interventions on nursing practice. A small-scale study by White (2021) followed 30 nurses for five years post-graduation and suggested that those with more simulation experience showed greater critical thinking skills in their practice, but the sample size limits the generalizability of these findings.
  7. Integration of Simulation into Curricula: While many nursing programs have adopted simulation to some degree, there’s little consensus on the optimal way to integrate it into curricula. Johnson and Lee’s (2022) survey of nursing programs in the United States found wide variation in the amount and type of simulation used, ranging from occasional supplemental exercises to full replacement of clinical hours.
  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Simulation: Several studies have attempted to analyze the cost-effectiveness of simulation in nursing education. While the initial investment in equipment and training can be substantial, research by Economou (2023) suggests that over time, simulation can be more cost-effective than traditional clinical placements, especially when considering factors like reduced risk of patient harm and increased standardization of experiences.

This review of the literature highlights several important points:

  • Simulation-based learning has shown promise in improving clinical skills and student confidence.
  • There’s a lack of robust research specifically examining the impact of simulation on critical thinking skills in nursing students.
  • Measuring critical thinking in the context of nursing education remains challenging.
  • More research is needed on the long-term impacts of simulation-based learning on nursing practice.
  • There’s no clear consensus on the best ways to integrate simulation into nursing curricula.

Our proposed research aims to address some of these gaps by specifically focusing on the development of critical thinking skills through simulation-based learning, using both short-term and long-term measures of effectiveness. By doing so, we hope to contribute valuable insights to the ongoing discussion about best practices in nursing education.”

4. Research Question and Hypothesis

Your research question and hypothesis are the core of your proposal. They should be clear, specific, and directly related to the gap in knowledge you’ve identified. In this section:

  • State your primary research question
  • Explain any secondary or sub-questions
  • Present your hypothesis or hypotheses
  • Justify your questions and hypotheses based on the literature review

Example: “Based on the gaps identified in the literature review, we have formulated the following research question and hypotheses:

Primary Research Question: “How does simulation-based learning affect the development of critical thinking skills in second-year nursing students compared to traditional classroom learning over the course of one academic year?”

Secondary Research Questions:

  1. “Is there a difference in the rate of critical thinking skill development between students who participate in high-fidelity simulations versus those who participate in low-fidelity simulations?”
  2. “How do students’ perceptions of their own critical thinking abilities correlate with objective measures of these skills?”
  3. “To what extent do critical thinking skills developed through simulation-based learning transfer to clinical practice settings?”

Hypotheses:

  1. Main Hypothesis: Second-year nursing students who participate in simulation-based learning will show greater improvement in critical thinking skills over one academic year compared to those who receive only traditional classroom instruction.
  2. Secondary Hypothesis A: Students who participate in high-fidelity simulations will show greater improvement in critical thinking skills compared to those who participate in low-fidelity simulations.
  3. Secondary Hypothesis B: There will be a positive correlation between students’ self-perceived critical thinking abilities and their objectively measured critical thinking skills, but this correlation will be stronger in the simulation group than in the traditional learning group.
  4. Secondary Hypothesis C: Students who participate in simulation-based learning will demonstrate better application of critical thinking skills in clinical practice settings compared to those who receive only traditional classroom instruction.

Justification: These research questions and hypotheses are grounded in the current literature on simulation-based learning and critical thinking in nursing education. While previous studies have shown the effectiveness of simulation in improving clinical skills (Chen et al., 2021) and student confidence (Thompson, 2022), there’s a lack of robust evidence specifically linking simulation to improved critical thinking skills.

Our main hypothesis builds on the promising findings of White’s (2021) small-scale, long-term study, which suggested a positive relationship between simulation experience and critical thinking in practice. By conducting a larger study over an academic year, we aim to provide more generalizable results.

The secondary questions and hypotheses address additional gaps in the literature. The comparison of high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulations (Secondary Hypothesis A) responds to the lack of consensus on optimal simulation integration noted by Johnson and Lee (2022). The exploration of self-perceived versus objectively measured skills (Secondary Hypothesis B) addresses the issue of confidence versus competence raised in our literature review.

Finally, the question of skill transfer to clinical settings (Secondary Hypothesis C) addresses the crucial issue of how classroom learning translates to real-world practice, building on the work of Patel and Singh (2023) but using objective measures rather than self-reported data.

By addressing these questions and testing these hypotheses, we hope to contribute meaningful insights to the ongoing discussion about effective methods for developing critical thinking skills in nursing education.”

5. Methodology

The methodology section is where you detail exactly how you plan to conduct your research. This section should be comprehensive enough that another researcher could replicate your study based on your description. Include:

  • Study design
  • Participant selection and recruitment
  • Intervention details
  • Data collection methods
  • Measurement tools
  • Data analysis techniques
  • Potential limitations and how you’ll address them

Example: “Study Design: This study will employ a mixed-methods, randomized controlled trial design over one academic year. The use of both quantitative and qualitative methods will provide a comprehensive understanding of the impact of simulation-based learning on critical thinking skills.

Participants:

  • Target population: Second-year nursing students
  • Sample size: 200 students (100 per group, allowing for potential dropouts)
  • Inclusion criteria: Full-time enrollment in the second year of the nursing program
  • Exclusion criteria: Previous degree in a healthcare field, part-time student status

Recruitment will be conducted through the university’s nursing program. Participation will be voluntary, and students will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (simulation-based learning) or control (traditional classroom learning) group.

Intervention: Experimental Group:

  • Weekly 2-hour simulation sessions in addition to regular coursework
  • Mix of high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulations
  • Scenarios designed to challenge critical thinking skills
  • Debriefing sessions after each simulation to encourage reflection

Control Group:

  • Traditional classroom learning only
  • Matched for time with additional seminars or case studies

Both groups will continue their regular clinical placements as part of their nursing program.

Data Collection:

  1. Quantitative Measures: a. Critical thinking assessment:
    • Tool: California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST)
    • Timing: Beginning of the academic year, end of each semester, and end of the academic year
    b. Clinical performance evaluation:
    • Tool: Creighton Competency Evaluation Instrument (CCEI)
    • Timing: During clinical placements each semester
    c. Self-perceived critical thinking ability:
    • Tool: Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale (CTSAS)
    • Timing: Beginning and end of the academic year
  2. Qualitative Measures: a. Reflective journals:
    • Students will complete weekly reflective entries about their learning experiences
    b. Focus groups:
    • Conducted at the midpoint and end of the academic year
    • Separate groups for simulation and traditional learning students
  3. Long-term follow-up:
    • Survey of participants one year post-graduation to assess perceived impact on professional practice

Measurement Tools:

  1. California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST): A validated tool that measures critical thinking skills across several domains including analysis, inference, and evaluation.
  2. Creighton Competency Evaluation Instrument (CCEI): A widely used tool for evaluating clinical competence in nursing students. It includes items related to critical thinking and clinical judgment.
  3. Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale (CTSAS): A self-report measure that assesses students’ perceptions of their own critical thinking abilities.

Data Analysis: Quantitative Analysis:

  • Repeated measures ANOVA to compare changes in CCTST scores over time between groups
  • Independent t-tests to compare CCEI scores between groups
  • Pearson correlation to examine the relationship between CCTST and CTSAS scores
  • Multiple regression to identify predictors of clinical performance (CCEI scores)

Qualitative Analysis:

  • Thematic analysis of reflective journals and focus group transcripts
  • Coding will be conducted independently by two researchers, with discrepancies resolved through discussion

Mixed Methods Integration:

  • Quantitative and qualitative results will be integrated using a convergent parallel design to provide a comprehensive understanding of the impact of simulation-based learning on critical thinking

Potential Limitations and Mitigation Strategies:

  1. Participant dropout: We’ve oversampled to account for potential dropouts. We’ll also use intention-to-treat analysis to handle missing data.
  2. Hawthorne effect: Participants may alter their behavior because they know they’re being studied. We’ll emphasize to all students the importance of maintaining their usual study habits.
  3. Contamination between groups: Students may share experiences. We’ll ask participants to refrain from discussing the specifics of their learning experiences with students in the other group.
  4. Variability in simulation experiences: To ensure consistency, all simulation facilitators will undergo standardized training, and we’ll use a structured debriefing protocol.
  5. Generalizability: Our study is limited to one institution. In the future, a multi-center trial could address this limitation.

By employing this comprehensive methodology, we aim to gather robust data that will allow us to draw meaningful conclusions about the impact of simulation-based learning on critical thinking skills in nursing education.”

6. Ethical Considerations

Ethical considerations are paramount in any research involving human subjects. This section should demonstrate that you’ve thoroughly considered the ethical implications of your study and have plans in place to protect your participants. Include:

  • Informed consent process
  • Confidentiality and data protection measures
  • Potential risks and benefits to participants
  • Measures to ensure fair treatment of all participants
  • Plans for dissemination of results
  • Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval process

Example: “Ethical considerations are a top priority in this research project. We are committed to conducting our study in a manner that respects the rights and well-being of all participants. The following measures will be implemented to ensure ethical conduct:

  1. Informed Consent:
    • All potential participants will receive a detailed information sheet explaining the study’s purpose, procedures, potential risks and benefits, and their rights as participants.
    • Students will have the opportunity to ask questions before deciding whether to participate.
    • Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants before the study begins.
    • Participants will be informed that they can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty.
  2. Confidentiality and Data Protection:
  • All data will be de-identified. Each participant will be assigned a unique code number, and this code will be used on all data collection forms instead of names.
  • Physical data (e.g., completed assessment forms) will be stored in a locked cabinet in a secure office.
  • Electronic data will be stored on a password-protected, encrypted server accessible only to the research team.
  • Any published results will present aggregate data only, with no individual participants identifiable.
  1. Potential Risks and Benefits: Risks:
    • Potential stress or anxiety related to participation in simulations or assessments.Possible fatigue from additional activities beyond regular coursework.
    Benefits:
    • Potential improvement in critical thinking skills and clinical performance.Contribution to the advancement of nursing education.
    Mitigation of Risks:
    • Psychological support services will be available to all participants.
    • Workload will be carefully monitored to prevent excessive burden on participants.
  2. Fair Treatment:
    • Random assignment to groups will ensure fairness in allocation of interventions.
    • The control group will receive additional seminars to balance the time commitment between groups.
    • After the study concludes, the control group will be offered the opportunity to participate in simulation-based learning sessions.
  3. Dissemination of Results:
    • All participants will receive a summary of the study findings.
    • Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences.
    • Findings will be shared with the university’s nursing department to inform curriculum development.
  4. Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval:
    • A detailed research protocol will be submitted to the university’s IRB for review and approval before the study begins.
    • Any proposed changes to the study protocol during the research will be submitted to the IRB for approval before implementation.
  5. Conflict of Interest:
    • All researchers will declare any potential conflicts of interest.
    • Measures will be taken to ensure that assessment of outcomes is conducted by individuals not directly involved in delivering the interventions.
  6. Data Retention and Destruction:
    • Data will be retained securely for five years after the completion of the study, as per institutional guidelines.
    • After this period, physical data will be shredded and electronic data will be securely erased.

By implementing these ethical considerations, we aim to protect the rights and well-being of our participants while conducting rigorous and valuable research in nursing education.”

7. Timeline and Budget

A clear timeline and budget demonstrate the feasibility of your project and show that you’ve thought through the practical aspects of conducting your research. This section should include:

  • A detailed timeline of research activities
  • A breakdown of anticipated costs
  • Potential funding sources

Example: “Timeline: Our research project will span 18 months, including preparation, data collection, analysis, and dissemination of results.

Month 1-2: Preparation Phase

  • Finalize research protocol
  • Submit IRB application
  • Prepare data collection instruments
  • Train research assistants and simulation facilitators

Month 3-4: Recruitment and Pre-testing

  • Recruit participants
  • Obtain informed consent
  • Conduct pre-tests (CCTST and CTSAS)
  • Randomize participants into groups

Month 5-16: Intervention and Data Collection

  • Implement simulation-based learning for experimental group
  • Conduct regular assessments (CCTST at end of each semester)
  • Collect clinical performance data (CCEI) during placements
  • Facilitate focus groups at midpoint (Month 10)
  • Participants complete weekly reflective journals

Month 17-18: Data Analysis and Report Writing

  • Analyze quantitative and qualitative data
  • Write up results
  • Prepare manuscript for publication
  • Develop summary report for participants and stakeholders

Post-study (1 year later):

  • Conduct follow-up survey with participants

Budget:

  1. Personnel Costs:
    • Research Assistant (part-time): $20,000
    • Statistical Consultant: $5,000
    • Simulation Technician: $15,000 Subtotal: $40,000
  2. Equipment and Supplies:
    • Simulation equipment rental: $30,000
    • Consumable supplies for simulations: $5,000
    • Printing and stationery: $1,000 Subtotal: $36,000
  3. Assessment Tools:
    • California Critical Thinking Skills Test (200 licenses): $10,000
    • Creighton Competency Evaluation Instrument (license): $2,000 Subtotal: $12,000
  4. Participant Costs:
    • Participant incentives ($50 per participant): $10,000
    • Refreshments for focus groups: $500 Subtotal: $10,500
  5. Data Analysis and Reporting:
    • Qualitative data analysis software license: $1,000
    • Publication fees for open-access journal: $3,000 Subtotal: $4,000
  6. Miscellaneous:
    • Travel to conference for result presentation: $2,500
    • Contingency fund (10% of total): $10,500 Subtotal: $13,000

Total Estimated Budget: $115,500

Potential Funding Sources:

  1. University internal research grants
  2. National League for Nursing (NLN) Nursing Education Research Grants
  3. American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Research Grants
  4. State Nursing Workforce Centers research funding
  5. Private foundations focused on healthcare education

We will apply to multiple funding sources to secure the necessary budget for this research project.”

8. Expected Outcomes and Significance

This section should clearly articulate what you expect to find through your research and why these findings matter. Include:

  • Anticipated results based on your hypothesis
  • Potential implications for nursing education
  • Broader impact on healthcare and patient outcomes
  • How your research will contribute to the existing body of knowledge

Example: “Expected Outcomes: Based on our hypotheses and the existing literature, we anticipate the following outcomes:

  1. Critical Thinking Skills: We expect that students in the simulation-based learning group will show significantly greater improvement in critical thinking skills, as measured by the CCTST, compared to the traditional learning group. This improvement is likely to be most pronounced in areas such as analysis, inference, and evaluation.
  2. Clinical Performance: We anticipate that students in the simulation group will demonstrate better clinical performance, as measured by the CCEI, particularly in aspects related to clinical judgment and decision-making.
  3. Self-Perceived Abilities: We expect to see a stronger correlation between self-perceived and objectively measured critical thinking skills in the simulation group, suggesting that these students develop a more accurate self-assessment of their abilities.
  4. Qualitative Insights: Through analysis of reflective journals and focus groups, we anticipate gaining rich insights into how students experience the development of critical thinking skills through simulation-based learning.
  5. Long-Term Impact: In the follow-up survey, we expect graduates who participated in simulation-based learning to report feeling better prepared for the challenges of nursing practice, particularly in situations requiring rapid critical thinking.

Significance: The anticipated outcomes of this study have significant implications for nursing education and, by extension, healthcare delivery and patient outcomes.

  1. Advancing Nursing Education: If our hypotheses are supported, this research will provide strong evidence for the effectiveness of simulation-based learning in developing critical thinking skills. This could lead to widespread changes in nursing curricula, with greater integration of simulation experiences throughout nursing programs.
  2. Improving Patient Safety: Nurses with stronger critical thinking skills are better equipped to make sound clinical judgments, potentially reducing medical errors and improving patient safety. By identifying effective methods for developing these skills, our research could indirectly contribute to better patient outcomes.
  3. Addressing the Theory-Practice Gap: One of the persistent challenges in nursing education is bridging the gap between classroom learning and clinical practice. If simulation-based learning proves effective in developing transferable critical thinking skills, it could help address this longstanding issue.
  4. Cost-Effective Education: While simulation equipment can be expensive initially, if it proves highly effective in developing critical skills, it could ultimately be a cost-effective approach to nursing education, particularly when considering the potential reduction in adverse events in clinical practice.
  5. Informing Educational Policy: The results of this study could inform educational policies at both institutional and national levels, potentially influencing accreditation standards for nursing programs.
  6. Contribution to Educational Theory: This research will contribute to the broader understanding of how experiential learning methods like simulation impact cognitive skill development, which could have implications beyond nursing education.
  7. Future Research Directions: Our study is likely to generate new questions and hypotheses about the optimal use of simulation in nursing education, paving the way for future research in this area.

In conclusion, this research has the potential to significantly impact how we prepare future nurses for the complex, critical thinking demands of modern healthcare environments. By rigorously examining the effects of simulation-based learning on critical thinking development, we aim to contribute valuable, evidence-based insights that could enhance nursing education and, ultimately, the quality of patient care.”

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9. Conclusion

The conclusion should succinctly summarize your proposal and restate its importance. This is your final opportunity to convince the reader of the value of your research.

Example: “This research proposal aims to address a crucial gap in our understanding of how to best develop critical thinking skills in nursing students. By comparing simulation-based learning with traditional classroom methods, we seek to provide empirical evidence that could significantly influence the future of nursing education.

The nursing profession faces ever-increasing challenges, from advancing medical technologies to complex patient needs and evolving healthcare systems. Critical thinking is not just a desirable skill for nurses—it’s an essential competency that can directly impact patient outcomes. Our proposed study, with its rigorous methodology and comprehensive approach, has the potential to offer valuable insights into how we can more effectively cultivate these vital skills in nursing students.

If our hypotheses are supported, the implications could be far-reaching. Nursing programs might revise their curricula to incorporate more simulation-based learning experiences. This could lead to graduates who are better prepared for the complexities of clinical practice, potentially improving patient safety and care quality.

Even if our results do not support our hypotheses, the findings will still contribute important knowledge to the field. They could help educators make more informed decisions about resource allocation and highlight areas where further research is needed.

In conclusion, this research represents a significant opportunity to enhance nursing education and, by extension, the quality of healthcare delivery. By investing in this study, we invest in the future of nursing and patient care. We believe that the potential benefits far outweigh the costs and challenges involved, and we are committed to conducting this research with the utmost scientific rigor and ethical consideration.”

This comprehensive research proposal provides a detailed roadmap for investigating the impact of simulation-based learning on critical thinking skills in nursing education. It addresses a significant gap in current knowledge and has the potential to influence educational practices in nursing programs worldwide. The proposal demonstrates a thorough understanding of the existing literature, presents a clear and feasible methodology, and considers important ethical and practical aspects of conducting the research.

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