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A Valediction : Forbidding Mourning Analysis

A Deep Dive into “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” by John Donne

John Donne’s “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” stands as a testament to the power of love and the depth of human connection. Written in the early 17th century, this poem continues to captivate readers with its intricate metaphors, profound emotions, and timeless message about the nature of true love.

In this extensive analysis, we’ll explore the poem’s background, structure, themes, and significance, unraveling the layers of meaning within Donne’s masterful verses.

Background on John Donne

Who was John Donne?

John Donne (1572-1631) was an English poet, scholar, and clergyman who left an indelible mark on the landscape of English literature. Born into a Roman Catholic family during a time of religious turmoil in England, Donne’s life was shaped by both personal struggles and professional triumphs. He studied at both Oxford and Cambridge universities, though he didn’t take a degree due to his Catholic faith, which prevented him from swearing the required Oath of Supremacy.

Donne’s early career was marked by a rebellious spirit. He worked as a lawyer, served as a member of Parliament, and even joined naval expeditions against Spain. However, it was his secret marriage to Anne More in 1601 that dramatically altered the course of his life. This union cost him his job and led to a period of financial hardship, during which much of his great poetry was written.

Later in life, Donne converted to Anglicanism and became a respected clergyman, eventually rising to the position of Dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. This spiritual journey profoundly influenced his writing, blending religious themes with explorations of love and mortality.

Donne’s Writing Style

Donne is often regarded as the foremost member of the Metaphysical Poets, a group of 17th-century English writers known for their complex, intellectually challenging work. His poetry is characterized by several key elements:

  1. Witty Conceits: Donne was a master of the conceit, an extended metaphor that draws surprising parallels between seemingly unrelated objects or ideas. The compass metaphor in “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” is a prime example of this technique.
  2. Intellectual Depth: His poems often engage with complex philosophical, theological, and scientific concepts, reflecting the intellectual ferment of his time.
  3. Emotional Intensity: Despite their intellectual nature, Donne’s poems are deeply emotional, exploring the heights of passion and the depths of despair with equal vigor.
  4. Innovative Language: Donne frequently used colloquial language and striking imagery, breaking with the more florid style of his contemporaries.
  5. Metrical Experimentation: While he often used traditional forms, Donne was not afraid to experiment with meter and rhythm to create dramatic effects.
  6. Paradox and Argument: Many of Donne’s poems are structured as arguments, often using paradoxical statements to challenge the reader’s assumptions.
  7. Blend of Sacred and Profane: Donne often mixed religious imagery with erotic themes, creating a tension that reflects his own complex relationship with spirituality and sensuality.

The Poem: “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”

“A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” is believed to have been written in 1611, when Donne was preparing for a trip to Continental Europe, leaving his wife Anne behind in England. The poem serves as a thoughtful farewell, reassuring his wife of the strength of their bond despite their impending separation.

Historical Context

The early 17th century was a time of great change and exploration. The boundaries of the known world were expanding through voyages of discovery, and new scientific theories were challenging old ways of thinking. This spirit of exploration and the tension between old and new are reflected in Donne’s innovative use of scientific and geographical imagery in his poetry.

Moreover, the religious landscape of England was still in flux following the Reformation. As a former Catholic turned Anglican clergyman, Donne was uniquely positioned to blend religious and secular themes in his work.

Structure and Form

The poem consists of nine four-line stanzas, known as quatrains. Each stanza follows an ABAB rhyme scheme, where the first and third lines rhyme with each other, and the second and fourth lines form a separate rhyme. This structure gives the poem a musical quality and a sense of balance, mirroring the equilibrium Donne seeks to establish between separation and unity.

The meter of the poem is primarily iambic tetrameter, meaning each line typically has four iambs (an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable). This creates a rhythmic, almost song-like quality to the verses. However, Donne occasionally varies this pattern, using metrical substitutions to emphasize certain words or ideas.

Tone and Mood

The overall tone of “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” is one of calm reassurance. Unlike many love poems that dwell on the pain of separation, Donne’s work is characterized by a quiet confidence in the strength and durability of true love. This creates a mood of serenity and intellectual contemplation rather than emotional turbulence.

The title itself sets this tone. By “forbidding mourning,” Donne is not coldly commanding his wife not to feel sad, but rather reassuring her that their parting is not an occasion for grief. The word “valediction” comes from the Latin “valedicere,” meaning “to say farewell,” giving the poem a formal, almost ceremonial quality.

Detailed Analysis: Stanza by Stanza

Let’s delve into each stanza of the poem to uncover its rich layers of meaning and artistry.

Stanza 1: A Peaceful Passing

The opening stanza sets the tone for the entire poem:

“As virtuous men pass mildly away, And whisper to their souls to go, Whilst some of their sad friends do say The breath goes now, and some say, No:”

Donne begins with a striking comparison, likening their parting to the peaceful death of a virtuous person. This might seem morbid to modern readers, but in Donne’s time, death was a much more visible part of daily life. The image of a good person dying calmly, surrounded by friends, was a powerful symbol of grace and acceptance.

The use of “virtuous men” immediately elevates their parting, suggesting that it’s not just a mundane separation but something noble and dignified. The word “mildly” reinforces the calm, untroubled nature of this parting.

The second line, “And whisper to their souls to go,” introduces the idea of body and soul separating, a theme that will recur throughout the poem. It suggests a willing acceptance of what’s to come.

The last two lines of the stanza present a poignant image of friends gathered around a deathbed, unsure whether their loved one has truly passed. This uncertainty mirrors the liminal state of Donne and his wife – together yet soon to be apart.

Stanza 2: No Grand Gestures

The second stanza builds on the first, directly addressing how the speaker and his beloved should behave:

“So let us melt, and make no noise, No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move; ‘Twere profanation of our joys To tell the laity our love.”

The verb “melt” is particularly evocative, suggesting a gentle, almost imperceptible parting. It contrasts sharply with the dramatic imagery of “tear-floods” and “sigh-tempests” that follows. Donne is advocating for a quiet, dignified separation rather than an emotional scene.

The use of hyphenated terms like “tear-floods” and “sigh-tempests” is characteristic of Donne’s inventive language. These compounds vividly convey the kind of demonstrative behavior he’s advising against.

The final two lines of this stanza introduce a religious element, using the Catholic distinction between clergy and laity. By suggesting it would be a “profanation” to display their love openly, Donne elevates their relationship to something sacred and private. The word “profanation” carries connotations of desecration or sacrilege, implying that their love is so pure and holy that public display would only degrade it.

Stanza 3: Earthly vs. Heavenly Movements

In the third stanza, Donne introduces a cosmic perspective:

“Moving of th’ earth brings harms and fears, Men reckon what it did, and meant; But trepidation of the spheres, Though greater far, is innocent.”

Here, Donne contrasts earthly and heavenly movements. The “moving of th’ earth” likely refers to earthquakes, which were seen as ominous events often interpreted as divine warnings. People would try to “reckon what it did, and meant,” attempting to derive meaning from these frightening occurrences.

In contrast, the “trepidation of the spheres” refers to the movement of the stars and planets in the night sky. In the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, which was still influential in Donne’s time, the stars were thought to be fixed on crystalline spheres that rotated around the Earth. The term “trepidation” was used in medieval astronomy to describe a hypothetical oscillation in the precession of the equinoxes.

By describing this cosmic movement as “innocent” despite being “greater far,” Donne suggests that grand, universal movements can occur without causing harm or fear. This serves as a metaphor for his separation from his wife – though it may seem momentous to them, in the grand scheme of things, it’s a natural and harmless occurrence.

Stanza 4: Love Beyond the Physical

The fourth stanza introduces a key distinction in the poem:

“Dull sublunary lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense) cannot admit Absence, because it doth remove Those things which elemented it.”

Here, Donne contrasts ordinary, earthbound love with the higher form of love he shares with his wife. The term “sublunary” literally means “beneath the moon,” referring to the earthly, mortal realm. These “dull sublunary lovers” are characterized by a love rooted in physical presence and sensory experience.

The parenthetical phrase “(Whose soul is sense)” is particularly telling. For these lovers, the essence (“soul”) of their love is physical sensation. Consequently, they can’t bear absence because it removes the very elements that constitute their love.

This stanza sets up the argument that will be developed in the rest of the poem: that true love transcends physical presence and is not diminished by separation.

Stanza 5: A Higher Love

Building on the previous stanza, Donne now describes his own love:

“But we by a love so much refined, That our selves know not what it is, Inter-assured of the mind, Care less, eyes, lips, and hands to miss.”

The word “refined” suggests a love that has been purified, elevated above ordinary physical attraction. This love is so sublime that even the lovers themselves can’t fully comprehend it, adding an element of mystery and transcendence to their relationship.

The phrase “Inter-assured of the mind” is crucial. It suggests a meeting of intellects, a connection that goes beyond the physical to encompass thought and spirit. Because of this mental and spiritual connection, they can better endure the absence of physical contact, caring less about missing “eyes, lips, and hands.”

This stanza encapsulates the Metaphysical Poets’ preoccupation with the relationship between physical and spiritual love. Donne argues for a love that, while not denying the physical, transcends it to reach a higher, more lasting plane.

Stanza 6: The Expansion of Love

The sixth stanza introduces one of the poem’s central metaphors:

“Our two souls therefore, which are one, Though I must go, endure not yet A breach, but an expansion, Like gold to airy thinness beat.”

Donne begins with the paradoxical idea of two souls being one, a concept rooted in both romantic and religious notions of unity in love. Despite the impending separation (“Though I must go”), he argues that their souls will not experience a “breach” or breaking apart.

Instead, he introduces the surprising idea of “expansion.” Rather than being damaged by the separation, their love will expand to encompass the distance between them. This is a powerful reimagining of absence, not as a lack or a loss, but as a form of growth.

The simile in the last line compares this expansion to gold being beaten into a thin sheet. Gold’s malleability allows it to be hammered into extremely thin sheets without breaking. Similarly, Donne suggests their love is strong enough to stretch across great distances without breaking.

This metaphor works on multiple levels. It conveys the idea of their love expanding to fill the space between them, becoming more rarefied (“airy thinness”) but no less valuable. It also suggests that, like gold, their love becomes more sublime and ethereal through this process of expansion.

Stanza 7: The Compass Metaphor

The seventh stanza introduces the famous compass metaphor:

“If they be two, they are two so As stiff twin compasses are two; Thy soul, the fixed foot, makes no show To move, but doth, if the other do.”

Donne begins by acknowledging the duality he had previously denied (“If they be two”), immediately setting up a complex interplay between unity and separation. He then introduces the central metaphor of the poem, comparing the lovers to the two feet of a compass (the mathematical instrument used for drawing circles, not a navigational compass).

In this extended metaphor, his wife’s soul is the “fixed foot” of the compass, the point that remains stable at the center of the circle. His soul is the other foot, the one that moves around to trace the circle’s circumference.

The beauty of this metaphor lies in how it illustrates connection despite distance. Even though one foot moves and the other stays still, they remain connected. Moreover, the fixed foot plays a crucial role: although it “makes no show / To move,” it leans towards the moving foot, subtly adjusting its position.

This metaphor brilliantly captures the idea of a relationship that maintains its center (represented by the wife) while allowing for movement and exploration (represented by Donne’s travels).

Stanza 8: The Circular Motion

The eighth stanza elaborates on the compass metaphor:

“And though it in the center sit, Yet when the other far doth roam, It leans and hearkens after it, And grows erect, as that comes home.”

Here, Donne explores the dynamics of the compass in more detail. The fixed foot, though remaining in the center, is not passive. It “leans and hearkens after” the moving foot, suggesting an active engagement and longing.

The verb “hearkens” is particularly evocative, suggesting both listening and yearning. Even in stillness, there is an active attention to the absent lover.

The final line, with its description of the fixed foot growing “erect” as the other returns, has often been read as having sexual undertones. However, it also simply describes the action of a compass: as the moving foot returns to its starting point, the fixed foot straightens up. This dual meaning is characteristic of Donne’s witty, often playful use of language.

More broadly, this stanza reinforces the idea that separation is part of a cycle that naturally concludes in reunion. The circular motion of the compass becomes a metaphor for the cycle of parting and return in a relationship.

Stanza 9: The Perfection of the Circle

The final stanza brings the poem to its conclusion:

“Such wilt thou be to me, who must, Like th’ other foot, obliquely run; Thy firmness makes my circle just, And makes me end where I begun.”

In this stanza, Donne directly applies the compass metaphor to himself and his wife. He casts himself as the foot that “obliquely run[s],” acknowledging his impending journey. The word “obliquely” suggests an indirect path, perhaps hinting at the uncertainties and potential dangers of travel in Donne’s time.

His wife’s “firmness” – her constancy and fidelity – is what makes his “circle just.” In geometry, a “just” circle is one that is perfect and complete. Thus, Donne suggests that it’s his wife’s steadfastness that ensures the integrity and perfection of their relationship, despite the distance between them.

The final line, “And makes me end where I begun,” works on multiple levels. In terms of the compass metaphor, it describes the motion of drawing a circle, ending where one began. In terms of their relationship, it promises that Donne will return to his wife. More broadly, it suggests a relationship that is complete and self-contained, always returning to its source.

This idea of ending where one begins also gives the poem a sense of closure, bringing us full circle to the calm acceptance of the opening stanza.

Themes in “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”

Having examined the poem in detail, we can now explore some of its key themes:

1. Spiritual vs. Physical Love

One of the central ideas in the poem is the distinction between ordinary, physical love and a higher, spiritual love. Donne argues that his connection with his wife transcends mere physical presence, allowing them to endure separation without diminishing their bond. This theme reflects the Metaphysical Poets’ interest in exploring the relationship between the physical and the spiritual. Donne suggests that while physical intimacy is important, true love exists on a higher, more ethereal plane. This idea is particularly evident in the contrast between “sublunary lovers” and the speaker’s own refined love.
This theme also reflects broader philosophical and religious ideas of the time about the relationship between body and soul. By elevating their love to a spiritual level, Donne implies that it partakes of the eternal and transcendent, rather than being subject to the limitations of the physical world.

The Strength and Elasticity of True Love

Throughout the poem, Donne emphasizes how strong and flexible true love can be. Whether he’s comparing their love to beaten gold or the two feet of a compass, the message is clear: genuine love can withstand separation and distance. This theme is particularly relevant in the context of Donne’s impending journey, serving as a reassurance to both his wife and himself.

The elasticity of love is beautifully captured in the image of gold beaten to “airy thinness.” Just as gold can be stretched without breaking, their love can expand to encompass the distance between them without being diminished. This idea challenges the notion that physical proximity is necessary for maintaining a strong relationship.

3. Unity in Duality

Donne explores the paradoxical nature of love as both unifying and individualizing. The lovers are described as having “two souls… which are one,” and later compared to the two feet of a compass. This theme speaks to the complex nature of romantic relationships, where individuals maintain their separate identities while also forming a unified whole.

The compass metaphor is particularly effective in illustrating this concept. The two feet of the compass remain distinct, with different roles, yet work together to create a perfect circle. This suggests that in an ideal relationship, partners complement each other’s strengths and support each other’s individual journeys.

4. The Calmness and Dignity of True Love

From the very first stanza, Donne advocates for a calm, undramatic approach to their parting. He suggests that making a big fuss about the separation would actually diminish the dignity of their love. This theme of quiet confidence runs throughout the poem, contrasting with more melodramatic depictions of love common in poetry.

This approach reflects a mature and secure love, one that doesn’t need grand gestures or constant reassurance. It also aligns with the poem’s overall tone of intellectual rather than purely emotional engagement with the concept of love.

5. The Interconnectedness of Lovers

Donne repeatedly emphasizes how he and his wife are connected, even when physically apart. The compass metaphor is the clearest expression of this, showing how they influence and respond to each other even at a distance. This theme speaks to the idea that true connection transcends physical proximity.

This interconnectedness is not just emotional but also intellectual and spiritual. The phrase “Inter-assured of the mind” suggests a meeting of intellects that persists regardless of physical separation.

6. The Cyclical Nature of Departure and Return

The circular imagery of the compass metaphor introduces the idea that departure and return are part of a natural cycle. Just as the compass always completes its circle, Donne assures his wife that he will return to her. This theme provides comfort in the face of separation by framing it as a temporary state within a larger pattern of togetherness.

This cyclical view also reflects a broader philosophical perspective on life and love, suggesting that all journeys ultimately lead us back to our starting point, though perhaps changed by the experience.

Literary Devices in the Poem

Donne employs a rich array of literary devices to convey his message:

1. Metaphysical Conceit

The most famous aspect of this poem is its extended metaphysical conceit – the comparison of the lovers to a compass. A conceit is an elaborate metaphor that draws a surprising parallel between two very different things. This device is characteristic of Metaphysical Poetry.

The compass conceit is particularly effective because it works on multiple levels. It illustrates the idea of connection despite distance, the different but complementary roles in a relationship, and the cycle of departure and return. Its complexity rewards close reading and analysis, typical of Donne’s intellectually engaging style.

2. Simile

Donne uses several similes throughout the poem. For example, “As virtuous men pass mildly away” compares their parting to a peaceful death, and “Like gold to airy thinness beat” likens their expanding love to hammered gold. These similes help to concretize abstract concepts, making them more accessible to the reader.

3. Paradox

The poem contains several paradoxes – statements that seem contradictory but contain truth. For instance, the idea that separation is actually “expansion” rather than “breach” is paradoxical. Similarly, the concept of “two souls… which are one” presents a paradox of unity in duality. These paradoxes engage the reader’s mind, encouraging deeper contemplation of the poem’s themes.

4. Alliteration

Donne uses alliteration (repetition of consonant sounds) in phrases like “some say” and “soul is sense” to create rhythmic effects and emphasize key ideas. This technique adds to the musicality of the poem and helps to link related concepts.

5. Enjambment

Many of the lines in the poem run over into the next without punctuation (enjambment), creating a smooth, flowing rhythm that mirrors the calm tone of the poem. This technique also allows Donne to create interesting tensions between the metrical structure of the poem and its syntax.

6. Imagery

The poem is rich in vivid imagery, from the peaceful deathbed scene in the first stanza to the beating of gold and the motion of the compass. These images help to make abstract concepts more concrete and memorable.

7. Symbolism

Various elements in the poem carry symbolic weight. For instance, the compass symbolizes both the connection between lovers and the idea of staying true (keeping a “just” circle) despite distance.

The Significance of “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”

This poem is considered one of Donne’s masterpieces and a prime example of Metaphysical Poetry. Its significance lies in several areas:

  1. Innovative use of metaphor: The compass conceit is often cited as one of the most clever and original metaphors in English poetry. It demonstrates Donne’s ability to find profound connections between disparate objects and ideas.
  2. Blend of emotion and intellect: The poem showcases Donne’s ability to express deep feelings through complex, intellectually challenging concepts. This combination of heart and mind is a hallmark of Metaphysical Poetry.
  3. Exploration of love’s nature: Donne’s idea of a love that transcends physical presence was revolutionary for its time and continues to resonate with readers today. It offers a mature, nuanced view of romantic relationships that goes beyond mere passion or sentimentality.
  4. Linguistic craftsmanship: The poem demonstrates Donne’s skill with language, from his use of meter and rhyme to his clever wordplay. His ability to pack complex ideas into relatively simple language is particularly noteworthy.
  5. Historical insight: The poem provides a window into 17th-century ideas about love, death, and the relationship between body and soul. It reflects the intellectual ferment of the time, incorporating elements of contemporary philosophy, religion, and science.
  6. Psychological depth: Donne’s exploration of the complex dynamics of a romantic relationship, including the tensions between individuality and unity, presence and absence, showcases a sophisticated understanding of human psychology.
  7. Formal innovation: While working within traditional poetic forms, Donne pushes the boundaries of what poetry can do, both in terms of subject matter and style.

Influence and Legacy

“A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” has had a lasting impact on English literature. Its influence can be seen in several ways:

  1. Inspiration for other poets: Many later poets, including T.S. Eliot and W.B. Yeats, were inspired by Donne’s work. His intellectual approach to emotion and his use of unconventional metaphors opened up new possibilities for poetic expression.
  2. Academic study: The poem is frequently taught in literature courses and has been the subject of much scholarly analysis. Its complexity and depth make it a rich subject for critical interpretation.
  3. Popular culture: The poem’s ideas, especially the compass metaphor, have been referenced in various works of literature and popular media. Its central message about love transcending distance continues to resonate in an age of long-distance relationships and global connectivity.
  4. Expansion of poetic possibilities: Donne’s innovative style helped broaden what was considered acceptable in English poetry, paving the way for future experimentation with form and content.
  5. Psychological insight: The poem’s nuanced exploration of human relationships has influenced not just literature but also our broader cultural understanding of love and attachment.

Relevance Today

Despite being over 400 years old, “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” remains relevant to modern readers in several ways:

  1. Long-distance relationships: In an era of global mobility and digital communication, the poem’s message about maintaining connection despite physical separation is particularly pertinent.
  2. Mature love: The poem presents a view of love that goes beyond initial passion to encompass intellectual and spiritual connection. This mature perspective on relationships continues to resonate with readers.
  3. Individuality in relationships: Donne’s exploration of how lovers can maintain their individual identities while forming a strong union speaks to contemporary concerns about balancing personal autonomy with commitment.
  4. Coping with separation: The poem offers a model for dealing with separation in a calm, dignified manner, which can be applicable to many types of partings in our lives.
  5. Intellectual approach to emotion: In a world that often prioritizes raw emotion, Donne’s ability to engage with feelings through reason and metaphor offers an alternative model for emotional expression and understanding.
  6. Interconnectedness: The poem’s emphasis on the invisible connections between people resonates with modern ideas about human interconnectedness in a global society.
  7. Transcendent love: In an increasingly secular world, the poem offers a vision of love as something that transcends the physical and partakes of the spiritual, speaking to a human desire for meaning and connection beyond the material.

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A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning

John Donne: Poems


  1. Q: Why is the poem called “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”? A: A valediction is a farewell, and the poem is essentially telling the reader (and Donne’s wife) not to mourn this farewell. Donne is “forbidding” or prohibiting sadness and dramatic displays of emotion at their parting. The title sets the tone for the poem’s message about approaching separation with calm dignity.
  2. Q: What is a Metaphysical conceit? A: A Metaphysical conceit is an elaborate and often surprising metaphor used to draw a comparison between two very different things. In this poem, the comparison of lovers to a compass is a prime example of a Metaphysical conceit. These conceits are characteristic of the Metaphysical Poets and are used to express complex ideas in vivid, memorable ways.
  3. Q: Why does Donne use the image of a compass? A: The compass serves as a powerful metaphor for the connection between lovers even when separated. It shows how they can be apart yet still connected, and how one’s movements affect the other. The compass also represents ideas of constancy, circular motion (implying return), and the interplay between fixedness and movement in a relationship.
  4. Q: What does Donne mean by “sublunary lovers”? A: “Sublunary” means “beneath the moon” or earthly. Donne is referring to ordinary lovers whose relationship is based primarily on physical presence and sensory experiences. He contrasts these “dull sublunary lovers” with the more spiritual, transcendent love he shares with his wife.
  5. Q: Is this poem autobiographical? A: While we can’t know for certain, many scholars believe Donne wrote this poem for his wife Anne before leaving on a trip to Continental Europe in 1611. The personal tone and specific situation described in the poem support this interpretation, but it’s important to remember that poets often adopt personas in their work.
  6. Q: What is the main message of the poem? A: The main message is that true love is spiritual and intellectual, not just physical. Therefore, physical separation cannot harm it, and there’s no need for dramatic displays of sadness when parting. The poem argues for a mature, confident approach to love that transcends physical presence.
  7. Q: How does this poem reflect Metaphysical Poetry? A: It reflects Metaphysical Poetry through its use of complex metaphors (conceits), its blend of emotion and intellectual ideas, its exploration of the relationship between the physical and spiritual worlds, and its incorporation of contemporary philosophical and scientific concepts.
  8. Q: Why does Donne compare their parting to the death of virtuous men? A: He uses this comparison to suggest that their parting, like the death of a good person, should be peaceful and undramatic. It also introduces the idea of their love transcending physical existence. This comparison sets the tone for the poem’s calm, dignified approach to separation.
  9. Q: What does the gold metaphor in the poem represent? A: The image of gold beaten to “airy thinness” represents the idea that their love can expand to cover the distance between them without breaking or losing its value. Like gold, their love becomes more refined and purified through this process of expansion.
  10. Q: How does the structure of the poem contribute to its meaning? A: The poem’s regular structure (nine quatrains with an ABAB rhyme scheme) provides a sense of order and control, reinforcing the poem’s message about approaching separation calmly and rationally. The use of enjambment and the circular imagery created by the compass metaphor also contribute to the poem’s themes of continuity and connection despite separation.

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