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Critical Appraisal  of two qualitative Research -Workplace Violence against Nurses Essay

This is a Critical Appraisal of two qualitative research articles that focuses on Workplace Violence against Nurses. It is also a critical appraisal example essay and critical appraisal assignment example focusing on Workplace Violence against Nurses Essay for Critical Appraisal  of two qualitative research studies

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Instructions for the Critical Appraisal of two qualitative Research articles

Write a critical appraisal of two qualitative research studies. Use the \”Research Critique Guidelines – Part 1\” document to organize your essay. Successful completion of this assignment requires that you provide the rationale, include examples, and reference content from the studies in your responses.

Use the practice problem and two qualitative, peer-reviewed research articles you identified in the Topic 1 assignment to complete this assignment.

In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two qualitative studies, explain the ways in which the findings might be used in nursing practice, and address ethical considerations associated with the conduct of the study.

Critical Appraisal of two qualitative Research articles

Background of the Study

Workplace violence is one of the main challenges nurses face in the modern healthcare workplace. In the first qualitative study, Henderson, Kamp, Niedbalski, Abraham, & Gillum (2018) explore nurses’ perspectives on patient and visitor violence. The study underlines the prevalence of violence to nurses and nursing students to be up to 43% for verbal and physical assaults. To effectively investigate the issue, the study engages 19 registered nurses through open-ended questions and follow-up probes to understand their perspectives on patient and nurse violence.

Patent care is intrinsically linked with the safety and well-being of healthcare providers. In the second study, Vrablik et al. (2019) investigate how workplace violence affects patient care by identifying the cognitive and behavioral processes affected by workplace violence. The study, through 23 ED practitioners, investigates why workplace violence has a variable impact on individual healthcare workers. Vrablik et al. (2019) focus on the ED because over 78% of health care workers in ED have experienced a physical assault by a patient or patient visitor in their career. Hence through interviews, the study gathers the experiences of nurses and nurse assistants on workplace violence.

Support to the Issue of Workplace Violence

The two studies offer an in-depth qualitative analysis of the issue of workplace violence. Findings from qualitative methods often offer insights from real experiences and could help formulate effective nursing practices. The findings point out the high incidence rates of workplace violence, and the adverse effects violence has on nurses. The findings and recommendations of these studies can sufficiently inform and guide organizations on developing frameworks to equip nurses with skills and protect them from violent events.

One of the key findings relates to my PICOT question as it shows that nurses should receive crisis intervention training as well as behavioral management skills to help in navigating the high-risk clinical settings such as the ED and mental health institutions. The finding not only equips organizations but also sets apart the practices that could make the healthcare environment safer to nurses and patients alike. Further, the findings are also critical in guiding the conduct of nurses in violent situations and the importance of nursing managers and supervisors to follow up on occurrences.

Method of Study per Critical Appraisal of qualitative Research

Both studies take a qualitative phenomenological approach that enables the researchers to collect first-hand experiences with workplace violence. Henderson et al. (2018) works with 19 nurses and uses a snowballing sampling technique to select the participants. This is similar to Vrablik et al. (2019), who also use a qualitative phenomenological approach with 23 nurses all attained through purposive sampling.

The qualitative phenomenological method is effective in collecting unique perspectives on an issue and how it affects people. This advantage makes the approach ideal in investigating workplace violence. However, the researcher has to be keen to avoid research-induced bias which could influence the study. Snowball sampling helps get participants especially where few are willing to participate. On the other hand, it is impossible to determine the sampling error in studies using snowball sampling. Purposive sampling leads to the selection of a sample based on their knowledge about the subject being studied. The sampling approach makes it easier to generalize findings even though a selection bias or error may occur in such a study.

Results of studies of the Critical Appraisal of qualitative Research

In approaching workplace violence, Henderson et al. (2018) emphasize that understanding the occurrence of workplace violence can help reduce the risk it poses to nurses. The results are analyzed in four themes. The themes include violence, long-term consequences of violence, education on violence, and support from the organization. The study identified the main types of violence against nurses to be verbal and physical. The analysis showed that the nurses experienced different forms of physical and verbal abuse in the ED, with visitors being more violent than patients. On the long term consequences of violence, the nurses note that they have had to change their interactions with patients following violent experiences. The findings show that constant exposure to workplace violence results in long term emotionally effects, such as being anxious inside and outside of the hospital.

The findings also highlighted that education and training for violence intervention have helped the nurses handle violent situations. The participants who had received the Crisis Prevention Institute (CPI) training and behavioral management training noted that they were able to de-escalate situations. Nurses also cited that the support of the organization has helped them deal with violent situations. However, six nurses noted not receiving assistance from supervisors or security with violent events and having a hard time addressing the event.

The study shows that workplace violence is one of the primary challenges nurses face daily. Henderson et al. (2018) note that it is imperative to recognize the extent of emotional, psychological, and physical trauma and experiences nurses face and how it undermines the quality of care, functionality of nurses, and quality of life of nurses. Henderson et al. (2018) recommend CPI training and de-escalation training to assist nurses to navigate their day-to-day lives, and policies and procedures by organizations to follow up on violent incidences. Even though the study is limited by the number of participants interviewed, it shows that addressing workplace violence against nurses is critical.

Vrablik et al. (2019) on the other hand find that workplace violence is a frequent, inevitable hazard. Nurses and the other ED practitioners point out that verbal abuse is an almost daily occurrence, and physical abuse was common. The participants’ highlight that the violence made them feel manifestations of burnout, such as being fatigued, worn out, and stressed daily (Vrablik et al., 2019). The impact of these manifestations was different for participants. While some noted that it made them emotionally exhausted, some underlined that it made them cold and jaded or diminished any sense of personal and professional accomplishment (Vrablik et al., 2019). Further, the findings show that the primary cognitive appraisals of participants varied from harm and threat appraisals to challenge appraisals. Vrablik et al. (2019) report that harm appraisals were manifested through negative emotions such as sadness and anger, threat appraisals as emotions of fear and anxiety, as well as a threat to their safety and challenge appraisals as positive emotions of growth and learning from stressful events.

Vrablik et al. (2019) also reviewed the data for secondary cognitive appraisals. Some participants underlined that they lacked adequate resources to overcome the challenge, especially when they felt less skilled or susceptible in violent situations. The findings also showed that most practitioners in ED resort to coping strategies. Some resorted to avoidant strategies that could take a few minutes away from the situation, or in some cases, alcohol after a shift in a bid to avoid dealing with the situations (Vrablik et al., 2019). On the contrary, others took an approach-oriented coping strategy where the practitioner actively attempts to address the situation directly.

The study acknowledges its selection bias as all participants had experienced some level of workplace violence (Vrablik et al., 2019). However, through the research, the study shows that workplace violence is a frequent occurrence, and practitioners approach the issue differently. The study urges organizations to actively institute measures to reduce the incidence rates of workplace violence and curtail the harmful effects of workplace violence.

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Ethical Considerations in the Critical Appraisal of qualitative Research

Critical appraisal  of two qualitative research -workplace violence against nurses essay 1
Ethical Considerations in the Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Research

The studies collect personal and professional information from nurses. The privacy and confidentiality of participants have to be maintained, and approval of the College Institutional Review Board obtained. The study has to provide written consent forms to participants. The collected data is recorded without identifiable information and stored in secure systems. Dealing with qualitative studies requires critical ethical considerations, especially on not collecting identifiable information, ensuring the participants are not in distress and obtaining written consent.

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Learn more on the strategies that may be implemented to manage the impact of violence

References

Henderson, L., Kamp, B., Niedbalski, K., Abraham, S. P., & Gillum, D. R. (2018). Nurses’ Perspectives on Patient and Visitor Violence: A Qualitative Study. International Journal of Studies in Nursing, 3(2), 117.

Vrablik, M. C., MD, Chipman, A. K., Rosenman, E. D., Simcox, N. J., Huynh, L., Moore, M., & Fernandez, R. (2019). Identification of processes that mediate the impact of workplace violence on emergency department healthcare workers in the USA: results from a qualitative study. BMJ open9(8), e031781. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031781

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Regards,

Cathy, CS. 

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