Chapter 6 Homework: Explain who is the instrumental leader of your family

Please provide thoughtful answers to the following prompts:

  1. Name 4 of your in-groups.
  2. For each in-group, tell me if it is primary or secondary and tell me why. (Use at least one complete sentence for each. If it is primary, describe examples of how your relationships are more personal and/or emotional. If it’s secondary, explain the goals the group is trying to accomplish.)
  3. Name 4 out-groups you see frequently (but are not a part of).
  4. For each out-group, tell me if it is a positive or negative reference group and why. (Use at least one complete sentence for each. What are the out-group’s attitudes and/or behaviors that you want to have or want to avoid?)
  5. In two or more sentences, describe one example of how an INdirect tie in your social network (not necessarily social media) has been of some benefit to you. Who was the tie, how were they INdirectly tied to you, and how did they help you?
  6. In two or more sentences, describe one example of an aggregate you have been in the last week. Where and when was it, who was there, and what were you doing?
  7. In two or more sentences, describe one example of a category that you are a part of and how it is important for your identity.
  8. In two or more sentences, explain who is the instrumental leader of your family and who is the expressive leader. For the instrumental leader, describe examples of the everyday tasks that person focuses on. For the expressive leader, describe examples of how that person promotes the emotional strength, unity, and support of the family.

‘Thoughtful’ means not just answering the entire question, but providing support for or explaining your answer with your own specific knowledge, experiences, or other examples. Don’t repeat yourself and make sure it is very clear to a non-sociologist what you are saying. You should not go to the internet or any other outside source to answer the questions.

The homework is designed to help you work with and apply the concepts to the best of your ability, rather than restate the definitions. You will likely earn all points if it is complete, shows that you have put forth effort, and indicates that you have read the text and paid attention to the lecture.

If your answer does include information from another source and you do not cite it, this is plagiarism and you will earn an automatic zero. For citations, I just need the title and author of where you got the information/ideas somewhere either in-text or at the end. 

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Explain who is the instrumental leader of your family
Explain who is the instrumental leader of your family


Chapter 6 Homework

Family, religious affiliation, close friends, and colleagues are examples of my in-groups in everyday life. My family is a primary group since we interact with them at a personal and emotional level. My family fulfils my emotional needs through expressive functions instead of pragmatic ones. For instance, if I am stressed about my career, I rely on my elder brother for personal support and encouragement.

Similarly, my church is a primary group since the members cater to my spiritual needs and show love and concern. On the contrary, my friends and colleagues at work are secondary groups since our relationships are goal-oriented and impersonal. For instance, my close friends help me attain a balance in life by bringing in social life, while my colleagues assist me in accomplishing my professional and organizational goals.

A cheerleader team performing during a basketball match, non-religious neighbors nearby a religious center, a friend having dinner with a family, and an organization contracting a foreign firm to complete a project are typical examples of out-groups. In this case, the cheerleader team is not part of the basketball team; the non-religious neighbors are not part of the religious community. The friend is not part of the family, while the foreign firm is not part of the organization’s employees.

A reference group entails people used as a standard for comparison regardless of whether one belongs to that group (Crossman, 2019). The cheerleader team is a positive reference group since they encourage the fans to love and remain loyal to their basketball teams.

The friend is a positive reference group since visiting and having dinner with a different family indicates love and concern. The foreign firm is a positive reference group since the organization’s employees can gain new skills through interaction.

On the contrary, the non-religious neighbors are negative reference groups since they are likely to interfere with the religious practices and norms of the religious community. I want to have the cheerful and confident attitudes of the cheerleader team and the love and care of the visiting friend.

I built a friendship with my brother’s friend (a marketer). My brother’s friend assisted me in applying for a job at the marketing company where I worked. Last week on Saturday, I was in a restaurant taking coffee. The restaurant had a group of people gathered simultaneously and place but had no form of connection. I attended a mother’ day guidance and counseling session. All individuals that attended the session were all mothers.

Instrumental leaders help achieve socially essential goals, while expressive leaders prioritize social-emotional behavior (Crossman, 2019). My father plays the instrumental role, while my mother is an expressive leader. My father maintains discipline, provides economic support, and makes decisions in the family, while my mother provider care, affection, and love for all the family members.


Crossman, A. (2019). Expressive Roles and Task Roles. Retrieved from

Crossman, A. (2019). What is a Reference Group? Retrieved from