Here are GCU University PICOT Question Paper Examples on HCAIs and inpatient Falls to help you prepare your nursing paper.

We have compiled a comprehensive guide for you if you are working on a PICOT question paper for the first time.

    PICOT Question Paper Examples – Inpatient Falls

    Inpatient falls are a critical issue facing health organizations in the current society. Inpatient falls contribute to significant adverse events that worsen the health outcomes of the patients. Patient falls increase the risk of injuries, unexpected care, increased stay in the hospital, and high costs incurred in seeking the needed treatment. Healthcare institutions also incur significant costs due to the extra care needs of patients and lawsuits related to patient safety issues (Najafpour et al., 2019).

    Nurses and other healthcare providers have a role to play in addressing the issue of inpatient falls. They identify and implement effective interventions that have been proven in studies to reduce the prevalence of the problem. One of these interventions is using practice protocols such as STRATIFY to prevent and reduce the rates of inpatient falls. Therefore, this research paper explores the issue of inpatient falls and proposes a solution to it as follows:

    Evidence-Based Solution

    The proposed evidence-based solution that can be utilized to prevent and reduce the rates of inpatient falls is the St. Thomas Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly inpatients (TRATIFY tool). The STRATIFY risk assessment tool consists of five assessment items to identify a patient’s potential risk of falls. The assessment areas include a history of falls, visual impairment, patient agitation, transfer, mobility, and incontinence (Castellini et al., 2017). Consistent and effective use of this tool reduces inpatient fall rates through the early identification of at-risk patients and adopting responsive interventions for the problem.

    Nursing Interventions

    Using the STRATIFY risk assessment tools requires nurses to undertake several interventions. One of them is the identification of all the patients who are at risk of falls. The assessment entails obtaining information related to their histories of falls, visual impairment, agitation, incontinence, transfer, and mobility. Nurses are also expected to develop responsive strategies that will minimize the risk of falls based on the risk assessment outcomes (Castellini et al., 2017). Some interventions may include using hourly nursing rounds, alarms, and beds with rails to minimize the risk of falls in admitted patients.

    Patient Care

    The use of the proposed solution promotes enhanced patient care. It strengthens the utilization of patient-centeredness in the provision of care. The patient-centeredness is seen in developing plans of care for patients based on their risk profiles. Patient care is also improved due to the enhanced level of awareness among the nurses on the importance of patient safety and the creation of an organizational culture that promotes safety.

    Health Care Agency

    The prevention and reduction of inpatient falls with the STRATIFY protocol significantly benefits the health care agency. It improves the overall safety of care given in the organization. It also strengthens the quality of care the patients receive due to minimizing adverse events. A reduction and prevention of inpatient falls also reduce the costs in the organization due to lowered inpatient stays by the patients and the need for specialists and specialized care due to injuries from falls.

    Nursing Practice

    Addressing the issue of inpatient falls using the STRATIFY risk assessment tool has significant implications for nursing practice. It promotes the provision of high-quality and safe care to the patients. It also promotes the provision of patient-centered care to the patients. There is also the increased use of evidence-based practices in nursing. This is likely to be experienced if the proposed solution significantly reduces the prevalence of inpatient falls in the healthcare agency.


    Overall, this research paper has proposed a PICOT question that can be used to address the issue of inpatient falls among elderly patients. The paper has provided insights into the effect of the solution on patient care, evidence-based practice, and healthcare agencies. The proposed solution aims at promoting patient safety in the clinical setting. Therefore, nurses are expected to adopt its use for identifying and preventing patients at risk of falls.

    PICOT Statement Paper Examples – Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs)

    Patients face a significant risk of Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). HCAIs, also known as nosocomial infections, are infections acquired in hospitals and care facilities. The infections are caused by viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens and first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days of receiving care. HCAIs constitute a significant safety concern for both healthcare providers and patients. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies that nearly 1.7 million hospitalized patients annually acquire HCAIs while being treated for other health issues and that more than 98,000 patients die due to these infections. Studies show that HCAIs prevalence rates range from 4.6% to 9.3%, with the ICU having a higher prevalence rate of up to 16%.  Patients are highly susceptible to infections in the ICUs due to diminished immune systems, cross-contamination between patients and nurses, infections to surgery sites (SSIs) and implants, and prostheses, which could include bloodstream infections.

    Antibiotics, the primary mode of treating and managing infections, surmount the high cost of healthcare. Secondly, despite the intensive approaches to address HCAIs, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and poor implementation of best practices by nurses make HCAIs one of the biggest causes of death and an increase in healthcare costs. It is essential to establish frameworks that reduce the occurrence of HCAIs among ICU patients who are susceptible and hugely affected. Studies suggest using simple infection control procedures coupled with routine educational interventions for healthcare professionals.

    Structure of the PICOT Statement Paper

    Studies indicate that the risk for HCAIs is high for patients in ICUs. ICU patients are highly susceptible to low immune systems, cross contaminations, surgical sites, and wounds. Hence, the study focuses on a population of ICU patients.

    Population– ICU patients- This includes the patients held in ICUs as a result of their condition.

    Intervention– the proposed intervention will be routine educational initiatives for nurses on managing and controlling infections coupled with simple infection control procedures.

    Comparison- The comparison will be made on the clinical outcomes obtained after routinely training the nurses on infection prevention and management compared to simple infection control procedures such as washing hands.

    Outcomes– the expected results include a reduced occurrence of HCAIs infections, reduced costs of healthcare, and improved patient safety. The routine training is expected to reduce the number and instances of HCAIs infections, subsequently reducing healthcare costs and improving employees’ safety.

    Time– over three months.

    Hence the PICOT statement paper’s PICOT question is:

    For ICU patients (P), will routine educational initiatives for nurses on managing and controlling infections coupled the with simple infection control procedures (I), in comparison to the use of simple infections control procedures solely (C), lead to a reduced occurrence of HCAIs infections, reduced costs of healthcare and improved patient safety (0) over a period of three months (T).

    Literature Evaluation Table Example 1

    CriteriaArticle 1Article 2Article 3Article 4Article 5Article 6
    Author , journalCurrie, K., Melone, L., Stewart, S., King, C., Holopainen, A., Clark, A. M., & Reilly, J.. American Journal of infection control46(8), 936-942.Russo, P. L., Havers, S. M., Cheng, A. C., Richards, M., Graves, N., & Hall, L. (2016). A qualitative study. American journal of infection control44(12), 1505-1510.Krein, S. L., Harrod, M., Collier, S., Davis, K. K., Rolle, A. J., Fowler, K. E., & Mody, L. (2017). A national collaborative approach to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections in nursing homes: A qualitative assessment. American journal of infection control45(12), 1342-1348.Rutala, W. A., Kanamori, H., Gergen, M., Sickbert-Bennett, E., Knelson, L. P., Chen, L. F., … & Weber, D. infectious diseases (Vol. 4, No. suppl_1, pp. S192-S192). US: Oxford University Press.Reynolds, K. A., & Canales, R. A. (2016).. American Journal of Infection Control, 44(6), S4-S5.Patel, P. K., Greene, M. T., Jones, K., Rolle, A. J., Ratz, D., Snyder, A., … & Chopra, V. (2019).. Annals of Internal Medicine171(7_Supplement), S23-S29.
    Article title and year published(2018). Understanding the patient experience of health care–associated infection: a qualitative systematic reviewCharacteristics of national and statewide health care–associated infection surveillance programs: 2016(2017). A national collaborative approach to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections in nursing homes(2017, October). Quantitative Analysis of Microbial Burden on Hospital Room Environmental Surfaces Contributing to Healthcare-Associated Infections. In Open forumQuantitative Risk Modeling of Healthcare Acquired Infections and Interventions Using Baseline Data and Simple ModelsQuantitative Results of a National Intervention to Prevent Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infection: A Pre–Post Observational Study
    Research questions and purposes/aim of the studyTo develop acceptable, effective interventions, greater understanding of patients’ experience of HAI is needed. The aim of this study was to broaden our understanding and identify key characteristics of large understand implementation successes and challenges and experiences of participants involved in the programWe have conducted a research project to evaluate the microbiota of the eye washers present in several buildings across Michigan State University’s campus. To evaluate the impact of a multimodal intervention in hospitals with elevated rates of health care–associated infection
    SettingSeventeen studies (2001-2017) from 5 countries addressing 5 common types of HAI met the inclusion criteria.  Microbiological samples were collected from high-frequency-touch hospital room surfaces using Rodac plates (25 cm2/plate) in rooms after terminal room disinfection Acute care, long-term acute care, and critical access hospitals, including intensive care units and medical/surgical wards
    Methods intervention/InstrumentsThe Noblit and Hare (1988) approach to meta-synthesis was adopted.Semi-structured interviewsto understand implementation successes and challenges and experiences of participants involved in the program  A Pre–Post Observational Study
    AnalysisTo investigate contemporary patient experience in an era of antimicrobial resistance is warranted.Although the overall goal of health care–associated infection surveillance is to reduce the incidence of health care–associated infection, there are many crucial factors to be considered in attaining this understand implementation successes and challenges and experiences of participants involved in the program   
    Key findingsSeventeen studies (2001-2017) from 5 countries addressing 5 common types of HAI met the inclusion criteria. Four interrelated themes emerged: the continuum of physical and emotional responses, experiencing the response of health care professionals, adapting to life with an HAI, and the complex cultural context of HAI.lthough the overall goal of health care–associated infection surveillance is to reduce the incidence of health care–associated infection, there are many crucial factors to be considered in attaining this goal.Collaborative are an important strategy.  In hospitals with a disproportionate burden of health care–associated infection, a multimodal intervention did not reduce rates of CLABS
    Recommendations  Providing nursing homes with enhanced expertise and support to prevent HAIs and ensure resident safety   
    How it supports projectHelps in understanding the manifestation of HCIAsThe findings from this study will assist the development of new HAISPs and could be used as an adjunct to evaluate existing programSupports the educational interventions suggested by the proposal  Helps understand the risk HCAIs pose.