This article covers HLT 362V Week 2 Assignment: Population & Sampling Distribution Excel Worksheet and HLT 362 Article Analysis 2 Assignment

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Toggle## HLT 362 Article Analysis 2 Assignment

*Search the GCU Library and find two new health care articles that use quantitative research. Do not use articles from a previous assignment, or articles that appear in the Topic Materials or textbook.*

*Complete an article analysis for each using the “Article Analysis: Part 2” template.*

*Refer to the “Patient Preference and Satisfaction in Hospital-at-Home and Usual Hospital Care for COPD Exacerbations: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial,” in*

*HLT 362 Article Analysis 2 Assignment conjunction with the “Article Analysis Example 2,” for an example of an article analysis.*

*While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.*

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

**Description**

**Week 3 Objectives**:

- Evaluate hypothesis testing approaches and their application to health care.
- Define dependent and independent variables and their role in hypothesis testing.
- Describe evidence used to “reject “or “do not reject” the null hypothesis.
- Evaluate the relationship between hypothesis testing and confidence intervals.

**Things to do this week:**

**Participate**–to answering the discussion questions, post at least three days with a minimum of two Substantial posts on those three days. For a post to be substantial, it needs to genuinely add something new to the conversation.__In addition__**Assignment: Article Analysis 2**– You can find the activity in the “Path” menu, then under Topic 3 > Tasks. Please follow the instructions carefully and submit this paper by Sunday night. ***Here is a video*** I created that will give you some guidance based on common mistakes I have seen in the past.**Quiz 2**– You can find the quiz in the “Path” menu, then under Topic 3 > Tasks. Please follow the instructions carefully and complete the quiz by Sunday night. You have just one attempt at the quiz and it must be completed in one sitting. There are 10 questions that must be answered in 20 minutes before Sunday night. This quiz tests your knowledge on the statistical concepts presented in this third week’s topic as mentioned in the instructions. You can find the study material as mentioned previously in this announcement and you should be familiar with this material before taking the quiz. If you have any*technical issues with the quiz*, then please contact me and let me know. I can view what you have attempted and reset the quiz to give you an additional attempt.**Post Questions from Assignments!!! (Optional)-**Please start looking at the course material early in the week, so that you can start on the assignments ASAP. If you find that you cannot figure out part of any of the graded activities from homework, then please post questions in the Questions to Instructor Forum under the appropriate Topic. (Example: If you have a question about anything from Week 2, then you should ask a question in the “Week 2 Questions? ***Reply Here***” topic.) Also, remember any technical issues should be addressed by contacting GCU technical support at 602-639-7200. HLT 362 Article Analysis 2 Assignment

Article Analysis part 2

Article Citation and Permalink (APA format) Twigg, D. E., Kutzer, Y., Jacob, E., & Seaman, K. (2019). A quantitative systematic review of the association between nurse skill mix and nursing‐sensitive patient outcomes in the acute care setting. Journal of advanced nursing, 75(12), 3404-3423. Rehse, B., & Pukrop, R. (2016). Effects of psychosocial interventions on quality of life in adult cancer patients: meta-analysis of 37 published controlled outcome studies. Patient education and counseling, 50(2), 179-186. Buerhaus, P. I., Donelan, K., Ulrich, B. T., Norman, L., DesRoches, C., & Dittus, R. (2017). Impact of the nurse shortage on hospital patient care: comparative perspectives. Health affairs, 26(3), 853-862.

Point Description Description Description

Broad Topic Area/Title The main topic of the study is the systematic review of the relationship between the nurse skill mix and the nursing sensitive patient outcomes within the acute care settings. It has been stipulated that nurses with high skill mix tend to ensure effective patient outcomes in the treatment process. The broad topic of the study is to determine the impacts of psychosocial interventions on the quality of life among the adult cancer patients. The main topic of the study is to examine the effects of nursing shortages on the patients care within the healthcare settings.

Identify Independent and Dependent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables Independent variable: Nursing sensitive patient outcomes (Categorical variable)

Dependent variable: Nurse skill mix (categorical variable) Independent variable: psychosocial interventions (categorical variable)

Dependent variable: Quality of life (continuous variable)

Independent variable: Number of Nurses (continuous variable)

Dependent variable: Quality patient care (categorical variable)

Population of Interest for the Study The population of interest in the study include nurses and other healthcare professionals whose responsibilities are similar to the roles played by nurses. The population of interest in the study is the cancer patients. The process of the study is to measure the outcome among the adult cancer patients that have been given the psychosocial treatment. Only the patients above 18 years of age were considered in the study. The population of interest is the nurses and patients. The number of nurses and patients identified for the study were selected from different healthcare settings. The number of quality healthcare outcome was measured against the number of nurses to determine the effect of the treatment processes.

Sample The sample size for the study was 63. In other words, 63 individuals were selected for the study; these included nurses in various healthcare settings. The sample size used in the study was 3120. These included cancer patients from various healthcare settings identified by the study participants. The sample size was 657. This involved physicians who were identified from various healthcare settings. The participants were also provided with the questionnaires so as to enhance data collection processes.

Sampling Method Simple random sampling technique was used to gather information from the selected study participants. Their records were identified and biodata recorded appropriately. Simple random sampling technique is one of the most effective ways of collecting data from the study participants. Simple random sampling method was used to identify the study participants. Individuals were selected randomly from the population of the cancer patients. Health records were then selected after the consent was signed with both the patients and their family members. The selected participants were then monitored or examined over a period of time to identify the effect of the psychosocial treatment on the quality of life. Simple random sampling technique was used to identify the study participants from the identified healthcare settings. Some of the participant’s information including age and the level of experience were obtain from the database.

Descriptive Statistics (Mean, Median, Mode; Standard Deviation)

Identify examples of descriptive statistics in the article. Some of the descriptive statistics used include: Mean, media, mode, and percentages Some of the descriptive statistics used include:

Mean

Standard deviation

Percentages

Frequencies Some of the descriptive statistics used include:

Mean

Median

Percentages

Frequencies

Inferential Statistics

Identify examples of inferential statistics in the article. Some of the inferential statistics used by the researchers include: Correlational analysis, cross-sectional analysis, Bivariate and multivariate analyses, and Pre‐ and post‐test quasi‐experimental design. The inferential statistics applied in the analysis include:

Chi-square tests

Correlation analysis

F-test The inferential statistics applied in the analysis include:

Correlation analysis

Proportions

## HLT 362V Week 2 Assignment: Population & Sampling Distribution Excel Worksheet

Problem 1: For a normal distribution that has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 8. Determine the Z-score for each of the following X values: X = 108, X = 112, X = 98, X = 70, X = 124

Use the information in 1 A to determine the area or probability of the following: P(x > 108), P(xProblem 2: Please type you selection in the cell beside the question

##### HLT362V Week 2 Workbook Exercises

##### Exercise 10

- What demographic variables were measured at the nominal level of measurement in the Oh et al. (2014) study? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- What statistics were calculated to describe body mass index (BMI) in this study? Were these appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Were the distributions of scores for BMI similar for the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Was there a significant difference in BMI between the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Based on the sample size of
*N*= 41, what frequency and percentage of the sample smoked? What frequency and percentage of the sample were nondrinkers (alcohol)? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent. - What measurement method was used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) for the study participants? Discuss the quality of this measurement method and document your response.
- What statistic was calculated to determine differences between the intervention and control groups for the lumbar and femur neck BMDs? Were the groups significantly different for BMDs?
- The researchers stated that there were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the intervention and control groups (see Table 2). Are these groups heterogeneous or homogeneous at the beginning of the study? Why is this important in testing the effectiveness of the therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) program?
- Oh et al. (2014, p. 296) stated that “the adherence rate to the TLM program was 99.6%.” Discuss the importance of intervention adherence, and document your response.
- Was the sample for this study adequately described? Provide a rationale for your answer.

- Assuming that the distribution is normal for weight relative to the ideal and 99% of the male participants scored between (–53.68, 64.64), where did 95% of the values for weight relative to the ideal lie? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Which of the following values from Table 1 tells us about variability of the scores in a distribution? a. 60.22

b. 11.94 c. 22.57 d. 53.66 - Assuming that the distribution for General Health Perceptions is normal, 95% of the females’ scores around the mean were between what values? Round your answer to two decimal places
- Assuming that the distribution of scores for Pain is normal, 95% of the men’s scores around the mean were between what two values? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Were the body image scores signiﬁcantly different for women versus men? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Assuming that the distribution of Mental Health scores for men is normal, where are 99% of the men’s mental health scores around the mean in this distribution? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Assuming that the distribution of scores for Physical Functioning in women is normal, where are 99%of the women’s scores around the mean in this distribution? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Assuming that the distribution of scores is normal, 99% of HIV-positive body image scores around the mean were between what two values? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Assuming that the distribution of scores for Role Functioning is normal, 99% of the men’s scores around the mean were between what values? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- What are some of the limitations of this study that decrease the potential for generalizing the findings to the target population?

- Plot the frequency distribution for “Age at Enrollment” by hand or by using SPSS.
- How would you characterize the skewness of the distribution in Question 1—positively skewed, negatively skewed, or approximately normal? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Compare the original skewness statistic and Shapiro-Wilk statistic with those of the smaller dataset (
*n*= 15) for the variable “Age at First Arrest.” How did the statistics change, and how would you explain these differences? - Plot the frequency distribution for “Years of Education” by hand or by using SPSS.
- How would you characterize the kurtosis of the distribution in Question 4————, mesokurtic, or platykurtic? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- What is the skewness statistic for “Age at Enrollment”? How would you characterize the magnitude of the skewness statistic for “Age at Enrollment”?
- What is the kurtosis statistic for “Years of Education”? How would you characterize the magnitude of kurtosis for “Years of Education”?
- Using SPSS, compute the Shapiro-Wilk statistic for “Number of Times Fired from Job.” What would you conclude from the results?
- In the SPSS output table titled “Tests of Normality,” the Shapiro-Wilk statistic is reported along with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Why is the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic inappropriate to report for these example data?
- How would you explain the skewness statistic for a particular frequency distribution being low and the Shapiro-Wilk statistic still being significant at
*p*< 0.05?

I look forward to meeting you!

If you have any questions or concerns, please visit the *Questions for Instructor *forum.

Course Code Class Code Assignment Title Total Points

HLT-362V HLT-362V-OL191 Article Analysis 2 130.0

Criteria Percentage 1: Unsatisfactory (0.00%) 2: Less Than Satisfactory (65.00%) 3: Satisfactory (75.00%) 4: Good (85.00%) 5: Excellent (100.00%)

Content 100.0%

Two Quantitative Articles 10.0% Fewer than two articles are presented. None of the articles presented use quantitative research. N/A Two articles are presented. Of the articles presented, only one articles are based on quantitative research N/A Two articles are presented. Both articles are based on quantitative research. HLT 362 Article Analysis 2 Assignment

Article Citation and Permalink 10.0% Article citation and permalink are omitted. Article citation and permalink are presented. There are significant errors. Page numbers are not indicated to cite information, or the page numbers are incorrect. Article citation and permalink are presented. Article citation is presented in APA format, but there are errors. Page numbers to cite information are missing, or incorrect, in some areas. Article citation and permalink are presented. Article citation is presented in APA format. Page numbers are used in to cite information. There are minor errors. Article citation and permalink are presented. Article citation is accurately presented in APA format. Page numbers are accurate and used in all areas when citing information.

Broad Topic Area/Title 10.0% Broad topic area and title are omitted. Broad topic area and title are referenced but are incomplete. Broad topic area and title are summarized. There are some minor inaccuracies. Broad topic area and title are presented. There are some minor errors, but the content overall is accurate. Broad topic area and title are fully presented and accurate.

Hypothesis 10.0% Definition of hypothesis is omitted. The definition of the hypothesis is incorrect. Hypothesis is summarized. There are major inaccuracies or omissions. Hypothesis is generally defined. There are some minor inaccuracies. Hypothesis is defined. Hypothesis is generally defined. There are some minor inaccuracies. Hypothesis is accurate and clearly defined.

Independent and Dependent Variable Type and Data for Variable 10.0% Variable types and data for variables are omitted. Variable types and data for variables are presented. There are major inaccuracies or omissions. Variable types and data for variables are presented. There are inaccuracies. Variable types and data for variables are presented. Minor detail is needed for accuracy. Variable types and data for variables are presented and accurate.

Population of Interest for the Study 10.0% Population of interest for the study is omitted. Population of interest for the study is presented. There are major inaccuracies or omissions. Population of interest for the study is presented. There are inaccuracies. Population of interest for the study is presented. Minor detail is needed for accuracy. Population of interest for the study is presented and accurate.

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Sample 10.0% Sample is omitted. Sample is presented. There are major inaccuracies or omissions. Sample is presented. There are inaccuracies. Sample is presented. Minor detail is needed for accuracy. Page citation for sample information is provided. Sample is presented and accurate. Page citation for sample information is provided.

Sampling Method 10.0% Sampling method is omitted. Sampling is presented. There are major inaccuracies or omissions. Sampling is presented. There are inaccuracies. Page citation for sample information is omitted. Sampling is presented. Minor detail is needed for accuracy. Sampling method is presented and accurate.

**HLT 362V Topic 1 Discussion 1**

Discuss the historical application of statistics in the field of health care. Describe an example, other than Florence Nightingale’s contributions, where statistical application has greatly influenced or changed health care operations or practice.

**HLT362V Topic 1 Discussion 2**

Discuss why it is important for a person working in health care to understand statistical concepts. Provide an example of how statistical data is used in your organization or specialty area today and what you are expected to do with this information as a practitioner.

**HLT 362V TOPIC 2 DISCUSSION 1**

Select a research article, other than the articles from your assignments, from the GCU library. Provide an overview of the study and describe the strategy that was used to select the sample from the population. Evaluate the effectiveness of the sampling method selected. Provide support for your answer. Include the article title and permalink in your post.

**HLT362V Topic 2 Discussion 2**

Using the research article selected for DQ 1, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important. When responding to peers, provide other questions and answers that could be considered in relation to the peers’ studies.

**HLT362V TOPIC 3 DISCUSSION 1**

Provide two different examples of how research uses hypothesis testing, and describe the criteria for rejecting the null hypothesis. Discuss why this is important in your practice and with patient interactions.

**HLT362V Topic 3 Discussion 2**

Evaluate and provide examples of how hypothesis testing and confidence intervals are use together in health care research. Provide a workplace example that illustrates your ideas.

**HLT362V TOPIC 4 DISCUSSION 1**

Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others. When replying to peers, evaluate the effectiveness of the research design of the study for two of the examples provided.

**HLT362V Topic 4 Discussion 2**

Describe the difference between research and quality improvement. Provide a workplace example where qualitative and quantitative research is …..and how it was use within your organization. When replying to peers, discuss how these research findings might be incorporated into another health care setting.

**HLT362V TOPIC 5 DISCUSSION 1**

Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices. Provide an example and explain what data would be necessary to make a change in practice.

**HLT362V Topic 5 Discussion 2**

Discuss ways your organization uses technology to gather patient and health care information, and how this information and data are use to direct patient care and outcomes.

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##### Exercise 14

**Understanding Simple Linear Regression**

- According to the study narrative and Figure 1 in the Flannigan et al. (2014) study, does the APLS UK formulae under- or overestimate the weight of children younger than 1 year of age? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Using the values a = 3.161 and b = 0.502 with the novel formula in Figure 1, what is the … weight in kilograms (kg) for a child at 9 months of age? Show your calculations.
- Using the values a = 3.161 and b = 0.502 with the novel formula in Figure 1, what is the … weight in kilograms for a child at 2 months of age? Show your calculations.
- In Figure 2, the formula for calculating y (weight in kg) is Weight in kg = (0.176 × age in months) + 7.241. Identify the y intercept and the slope in this formula.
- Using the values a = 7.241 and b = 0.176 with the novel formula in Figure 2, what is the … weight in kilograms for a child 3 years of age? Show your calculations.
- Using the values a = 7.241 and b = 0.176 with the novel formula in Figure 2, what is the … weight in kilograms for a child 5 years of age? Show your calculations.
- In Figure 3, some of the actual mean weights represented by the blue line with squares are above the dotted straight line for the novel formula, but others are below the straight line. Is this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- In Figure 3, the novel formula is (Weight in kilograms = (0.331 × Age in months) – 6.868. What is the predicted weight in kilograms for a child 10 years old? Show your calculations.
- Was the sample size of this study adequate for conducting simple linear regression? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Describe one potential clinical advantage and one potential clinical problem with using the three novel formulas presented in Figures 1, 2, and 3 in a PICU setting.

##### Exercise 19

**Understanding Pearson Chi-Square**

- According to the relevant study results section of the Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study, what categories are reported to be statistically significant?
- What level of measurement is appropriate for calculating the χ2 statistic? Give two exam¬ples from Table 2 of demographic variables measured at the level appropriate for χ2.
- What is the χ2 for U.S. practice region? Is the χ2 value statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. X2= 29.68; p= <.00
- What is the df for provider type? Provide a rationale for why the df for provider type pre¬sented in Table 2 is correct.
- Is there a statistically significant difference for practice setting between the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services (RAAPS) users and nonusers? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- State the null hypothesis for provider age in years for RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers.
- Should the null hypothesis for provider age in years developed for Question 6 be accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Describe at least one clinical advantage and one clinical challenge of using RAAPS as described by Darling-Fisher et al. (2014).
- How many null hypotheses are rejected in the Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study for the results presented in Table 2? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- A statistically significant difference is present between RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers for U.S. practice region, χ2 = 29.68. Does the χ2 result provide the location of the difference? Provide a rationale for your answer.

##### Exercise 29

**Calculating Simple Linear Regression**

- If you have access to SPSS, compute the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality for the variable age (as demonstrated in Exercise 26). If you do not have access to SPSS, plot the frequency distributions by hand. What do the results indicate?
- State the null hypothesis where age at enrollment is used to predict the time for comple¬tion of an RN to BSN program.
- What is b as computed by hand (or using SPSS)?
- What is a as computed by hand (or using SPSS)?
- Write the new regression equation.
- How would you characterize the magnitude of the obtained R2 value? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- How much variance in months to RN to BSN program completion is explained by knowing the student’s enrollment age?
- What was the correlation between the actual y values and the predicted y values using the new regression equation in the example?
- Write your interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal.
- Given the results of your analyses, would you use the calculated regression equation to predict future students’ program completion time by using enrollment age as x? Provide a rationale for your answer.

**HLT 362V Module 1 Mean Variance Standard Deviation**

Please type you answer in the cell beside the question.

- Identify the sampling technique being used. Every 20th patient that comes into the emergency room is given a satisfaction survey upon their discharge.
- random sampling
- cluster sampling
- systematic sampling
- stratified sampling
- none of the above
- The formula for finding the sample mean is ______________.
- The formula for finding sample standard deviation is ________________.

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**HLT 362V Module 1 Exercise 16 Done**

1- The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement? (Your choices are: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval/ratio, or Experimental)

2- What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?

3- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.

5- Which group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6 – Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

7 – The mean (X ̅) is a measure of a distribution while the SD is a measure of its scores. Both X ̅ and SD are statistics.

8 – What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the severity scores vary significantly between the control and the experimental groups? Is this important? Provide a rationale for your answer.

9 – Which variable was least affected by the empowerment program? Provide a rationale for your answer.

10 – Was it important for the researchers to include the total means and SDs for the study variables in Table 2 to promote the readers’ understanding of the study results? Provide a rationale for your answer.

**HLT 362V M2 Population Sampling Distribution**

For a normal distribution that has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 8. Determine the Z-score for each of the following X values:

X = 108

X = 112

X = 98

X = 70

X = 124

Use the information in 1 A to determine the area or probability of the following:

P(x > 108)

P(x

HLT362 Week 3 Quiz.docx practice exam questions with answers 2021 solution

If you are conducting a study on the impacts of diet and exercise on high blood pressure and you take a

proportional sample based upon race/ethnicity, this would be an example of: ok

Simple random sample

Cluster sampling

Stratified sampling

Convenience sampling

• If a researcher does not select the appropriate level of significance (alpha) based upon prior

research or industry standard and concludes that the study found a statistical difference when in

fact there was no difference, this is referred to as: ok

Validity

Reliability

Type I error

Type II error

• To obtain a sample of 20 patients in ICU, clinician goes to the ICU and selects the current

patients. This is an example of a: ok

Judgement sampling

Simple random sampling

Snowball sampling

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