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Personal Control Beliefs – Comparison Matrix – Assignment 1 Solution


Personal Control Beliefs – Comparison Matrix (Literature Review)

You will decide which personal control belief topic to explore deeper in this assignment. Empirical articles present original research conducted or personally observed by the author(s). This is a foundation of scholarly research/writing.

For this assignment, you are to select 3 articles for comparison. The articles you select must include the following elements: a description of the study, an introduction, a research question, an explanation of the study’s methodology, a presentation of the results of the study, and a conclusion that discusses the results and suggests topics for further study.

To successfully complete the assignment:

  • Locate three (3) empirical, research-based articles for one of the following personal control belief topics: motivation to exercise personal control, self-efficacy, mastery beliefs, learned helplessness, reactance theory, hope, and expectancy-value model.
  • Copy and paste the below Comparison Matrix (Literature Review) table into a Word document.
  • Completely fill in the Comparison Matrix (Literature Review) table with information from the three (3) articles.
  • Use the information from the completed Comparison Matrix (Literature Review) table to write a summary paper of 1000-1500 words that compares the three empirical articles. The paper will include the following elements:

-Comparison of the purposes of each study and the authors’ statements of why the study is important

-Discussion of the conclusions from the studies

-Comparison of topics suggested for future study

Submit the Comparison Matrix (Literature Review) table and the paper as a single deliverable. Do so by placing the table at the end of the paper, in an Appendix.

Comparison Matrix (Literature Review)

Article 1

Article 2

Article 3


Purpose of the Study

Research Question(s)

Sample Population(s)

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Personal control beliefs
Personal Control Beliefs

Assignment Expectations

Length: 1000 1500 words (not including the Comparison Matrix); answers must thoroughly address the prompts in a clear, concise manner.

Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA style. Include the Comparison Matrix as a table at the end of the paper. These do not count towards the minimum word count for this assignment.

References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. Include at least three (3) scholarly sources to support your claims.

Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).

File name: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, RHall Assignment 1.docx)


Personal Control Beliefs – Comparison Matrix (Literature Review)

Individuals tend to perceive factors that limit or facilitate behavioral performance differently. These factors are the control beliefs, and they tend to influence how social activities happen or will happen, their outcomes and determine behavioral dynamics (Stolz et al., 2020). This assignment identifies and compares three empirical and research articles on the expectancy-value model.

Personal Control Beliefs – Comparison Matrix

Article 1 Article 2 Article 3
Title/Author(s) Title: Using expectancy-value theory as a framework to reduce student resistance to active learning: A proof of concept.

Cooper, K. M., Ashley, M., & Brownell, S. E. (2017).

Title: Using expectancy-value theory to explore aspects of motivation and engagement in inquiry-based learning in primary mathematics.

Authors: Fielding-Wells, J., O’Brien, M., & Makar, K.

Title: Using expectancy-value theory to understand academic self-control.

Galla, B. M., Amemiya, J., & Wang, M. T. (2018).

Authors: Galla, B. M., Amemiya, J., & Wang, M. T.

Purpose of the Study To assess if expectancy theory can be used to conduct an introductory exploration of biology students’ active learning experiences. To evaluate student-student and teacher-student interactions in a primary classroom. To determine academic self-control among middle and high school students.
Research Question(s) How do students value active learning?

What costs do students perceive?

How confident are students in their abilities to succeed in active learning?

Can expectancy-value theory (EVT) be used to develop insight into motivational aspects manifesting during the Inquiry-based learning (IBL) cases? What explains whether a student will exercise self-control in academic contexts?
Sample Population(s) 25 first-year biology students. Twenty-eight students. The students were part of students attending a co-educational facility. This was a metropolitan and government in Australia in years 4–5 and aged 8–10. Study 1: Freely available data from a nationally-representative longitudinal study of middle and high school students from 12 U.S. communities.

Study 2: 129 ninth-grade students

Study 3: 1444 6th, 9th, and 8th-grade students. The students were selected from three districts schools in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

Limitations Participant bias from second guesses, change of answers, or behaviors. Limited generalizability. Inability to assess students’ appraisal values for alternative activities.

Summary Paper

Cooper et al. (2017) purposed to determine if the expectancy-value theory could be employed to evaluate the biology student’s involvement with active learning. The authors examined the perceptions of first-year students. The students were taking biology majors and had previously attended forty hours actively learning throughout two weeks. From the study, the authors expected to understand how students’ perception of active learning, self-efficacy, and active learning costs affects their experiences. The study is important since the authors created a novel theoretical framework for instructors to aid student engagement and evaluate diminished learning among students. The theoretical framework bridges the literature gap on the importance of active learning and students’ perception of the inherent value, self-efficacy, and cost of active learning.

On the other hand, Fielding-Wells et al. (2017) purposed to examine student-student and teacher-student interactions in a primary classroom to provide an insight into, describe, and describe factors that motivate inquiry-based learning (IBL). The authors argued that IBL allows students to address complex problems, yet there is little research on its implication on student motivation and engagement. Therefore, the study provided insightful empirical evidence on factors influencing student inquiry-based learning and its role in student motivation and engagement.

Lastly, Galla, Amemiya, & Wang (2018) purposed to understand middle and high school students’ academic self-control using the expectant-value theory. The paper asserts that expectancy-value belief effectively predicts self-control processes in academic activities. The outcomes are important in predicting student achievement, providing understanding into how individual personal excellence can be improved.

Cooper et al. (2017) conclude that expectancy-value theory can be used to scrutinize students’ opposition to active learning in an academic context. Through the study, the authors improved students’ perception of self-efficacy, the value and costs of active learning. Consequently, students developed minimal opposition and improved participation in active learning. Fielding-Wells (2017) concluded that inquiry-based learning is crucial in restructuring students’ expectations and improving motivation to commit to academic tasks. Fielding-Wells (2017) argued that students’ purpose for academic tasks influences their degree of engagement. Therefore, students should be encouraged to pick topics they desire to improve their interests. Lastly, Galla et al. (2018) concluded that subjective values and expectancy beliefs about academic activities influence behavior and motivation towards achieving specific academic goals. The study suggests that self-control related to academic tasks is a value-based decision that enhances interest and enjoyment in academic activities, encouraging self-control.

Cooper et al. (2017) does not suggest topics for future research but hope that the novel model created on expectancy-value theory could be used to support learning among students resistant to active learning. According to Fielding-Wells et al. (2017), the inquiry aspects can be used in future studies to determine its potential in motivating students, enhancing teaching and learning mathematics. Fielding-Wells (2017) also encourages incorporating the inquiry aspects into traditional lesson plans. Lastly, Galla et al. (2018) suggest experimental research to help understand the causal factors that influence how variation in expectancy-value theory can influence outcomes associated with self-control.


Cooper, K. M., Ashley, M., & Brownell, S. E. (2017). Using expectancy-value theory as a framework to reduce student resistance to active learning: A proof of concept. Journal of microbiology & biology education, 18(2), 18-2. https://dx.doi.org/10.1128%2Fjmbe.v18i2.1289

Fielding-Wells, J., O’Brien, M., & Makar, K. (2017). Using expectancy-value theory to explore aspects of motivation and engagement in inquiry-based learning in primary mathematics. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 29(2), 237-254. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13394-017-0201-y

Galla, B. M., Amemiya, J., & Wang, M. T. (2018). Using expectancy-value theory to understand academic self-control. Learning and Instruction, 58, 22-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.04.004

Stolz, D. S., Müller-Pinzler, L., Krach, S., & Paulus, F. M. (2020). Internal control beliefs shape positive affect and associated neural dynamics during outcome valuation. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14800-4

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